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Academic Writing Tips & Resources

This subject guide is designed to help Koç University students on various types of academic writing issues that may be encountered as they work through their courses, including writing research papers, essays, literature reviews and more.

Primary Sources

Primary sources are original materials on which further research is based- the firsthand accounts for history books or the experimental data and initial reports for scientific reviews.
In the sciences & engineering, primary sources are documents that provide full description of the original research. An original publication of a scientist's new data, results and theories, experimental research results in scientific journals.
In the social sciences, any original document or firsthand report such as a diary, paper or tape recording that provides data for analysis.

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources analyze, review, or summarize information in primary resources or other secondary resources.

Textbooks, journal articles, data analysis are some examples of secondary sources.

Primary vs Secondary Sources

An experiment data Journal article about the experiment data
A work of an artist Critique of the artist's work
Presidential Daily Diary of JFK Article about America's Presidents

Annual Report for Apple the company Book about the company