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European Union and Turkey: Introduction to European Union and Turkey Relations

This subject guide is designed to help you find information, books, databases, journals, reference sources, internet resources, and more available through Suna Kıraç Library's print and online resources about European Union-Turkey relations.

European Union and Turkey

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Basic information on the European Union

Basic information on the European Union 


The EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 27 European countries that together cover much of the continent.

It was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries who trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict.

Since then, the EU has developed into a huge single market with the euro as its common currency. What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organisation spanning all policy areas, from development aid to environment.

It has delivered half a century of peace, stability, and prosperity, helped raise living standards, and launched a single European currency. Thanks to the abolition of border controls between EU countries, people can travel freely throughout most of the continent. And it's also become much easier to live and work abroad in Europe.

The EU is based on the rule of law. This means that everything that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily and democratically agreed by all member countries. These binding agreements set out the EU's goals in its many areas of activity.

One of its main goals is to promote human rights both internally and around the world. Human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights: these are the core values of the EU. Since the 2009 signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights brings all these rights together in a single document. The EU's institutions are legally bound to uphold them, as are EU governments whenever they apply EU law.

The single market is the EU's main economic engine, enabling most goods, services, money and people to move freely. Another key objective is to develop this huge resource to ensure that Europeans can draw the maximum benefit.

As it continues to grow, the EU remains focused on making its governing institutions more transparent and democratic. More powers are being given to the directly elected European Parliament, while national parliaments are being given a greater role, working alongside the European institutions. In turn, European citizens have an ever-increasing number of channels for taking part in the political process.

Turkey EU relations

History

Turkey was one of the first countries, in 1959, to seek close cooperation with the young European Economic Community (EEC).

This cooperation was realised in the framework of an “association agreement”, known as the Ankara Agreement, which was signed on 12 September 1963. An important element in this plan was establishing a “Customs Union” so that Turkey could trade goods and agricultural products with EEC countries without restrictions.

The main aim of the Ankara agreement was to achieve “continuous improvement in living conditions in Turkey and in the European Economic Community through accelerated economic progress and the harmonious expansion of trade, and to reduce the disparity between the Turkish economy and … the Community”.

Key Milestones in EU - Turkey Relations Include

1987 Turkey submits application for full membership on 14 April.

1993 The EU and Turkey Customs Union negotiations start.

1996 The Customs Union between Turkey and the EU takes effect on 1 January.

1999 At the Helsinki Summit in December, the European Council gives Turkey the status of candidate country for EU membership, following the Commission’s recommendation in its second Regular Report on Turkey.

2001 The European Council adopts the EU-Turkey Accession Partnership on 8 March, providing a road map for Turkey’s EU accession process. On 19 March, the Turkish Government adopts the NPAA, the National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis (acquis means EU law), reflecting the Accession Partnership.

2001 At the Copenhagen Summit, in September, the European Council decides to increase significantly EU financial support through what is now called "pre-accession instrument" (IPA).

2004 On 17 December, the European Council decides to open membership talks with Turkey.

2005 Accession Negotiations open on 3 October.

2007 In November the European Commission presented to the European Council the Regular Report concerning Turkey's accession negotiations.

2008 The European Commission published in November its yearly progress report on Turkey’s preparation for EU accession.

For updated info on current status of negotiations, click here.

Key Links:
Directorate General for Enlargement, European Commission
Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Secretariat General for the EU Affairs
Undersecretariat of the Prime Ministry for Foreign Trade
Regular Reports on Turkey

 

Key Documents:
Ankara Agrement (TR) (108KB)  
Additional Protocol (TR) (169KB)  
National Programme for the adoption of the Acquis Communautaire (TR) (5026KB)  
Accession Partnership Document (TR) (190KB)  
Negotiating Framework (42KB)  
Recommendation of the EC on Turkey’s progress towards accession (185KB)  
Additional Protocol (533KB)

Schuman Decleration

Declaration of 9 May 1950

This is the full text of the proposal, which was presented by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman and which led to the creation of what is now the European Union.

World peace cannot be safeguarded without the making of creative efforts proportionate to the dangers which threaten it.
The contribution which an organized and living Europe can bring to civilization is indispensable to the maintenance of peaceful relations. In taking upon herself for more than 20 years the role of champion of a united Europe, France has always had as her essential aim the service of peace. A united Europe was not achieved and we had war.

Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany. Any action taken must in the first place concern these two countries.
With this aim in view, the French Government proposes that action be taken immediately on one limited but decisive point.

Picture - Schuman Declaration of 9 May 1950It proposes that Franco-German production of coal and steel as a whole be placed under a common High Authority, within the framework of an organization open to the participation of the other countries of Europe.  The pooling of coal and steel production should immediately provide for the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe, and will change the destinies of those regions which have long been devoted to the manufacture of munitions of war, of which they have been the most constant victims.

The solidarity in production thus established will make it plain that any war between France and Germany becomes not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible. The setting up of this powerful productive unit, open to all countries willing to take part and bound ultimately to provide all the member countries with the basic elements of industrial production on the same terms, will lay a true foundation for their economic unification.

This production will be offered to the world as a whole without distinction or exception, with the aim of contributing to raising living standards and to promoting peaceful achievements. With increased resources Europe will be able to pursue the achievement of one of its essential tasks, namely, the development of the African continent. In this way, there will be realised simply and speedily that fusion of interest which is indispensable to the establishment of a common economic system; it may be the leaven from which may grow a wider and deeper community between countries long opposed to one another by sanguinary divisions.

By pooling basic production and by instituting a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and other member countries, this proposal will lead to the realization of the first concrete foundation of a European federation indispensable to the preservation of peace.
To promote the realization of the objectives defined, the French Government is ready to open negotiations on the following bases.

The task with which this common High Authority will be charged will be that of securing in the shortest possible time the modernization of production and the improvement of its quality; the supply of coal and steel on identical terms to the French and German markets, as well as to the markets of other member countries; the development in common of exports to other countries; the equalization and improvement of the living conditions of workers in these industries.

To achieve these objectives, starting from the very different conditions in which the production of member countries is at present situated, it is proposed that certain transitional measures should be instituted, such as the application of a production and investment plan, the establishment of compensating machinery for equating prices, and the creation of a restructuring fund to facilitate the rationalization of production. The movement of coal and steel between member countries will immediately be freed from all customs duty, and will not be affected by differential transport rates. Conditions will gradually be created which will spontaneously provide for the more rational distribution of production at the highest level of productivity.

In contrast to international cartels, which tend to impose restrictive practices on distribution and the exploitation of national markets, and to maintain high profits, the organization will ensure the fusion of markets and the expansion of production.

The essential principles and undertakings defined above will be the subject of a treaty signed between the States and submitted for the ratification of their parliaments. The negotiations required to settle details of applications will be undertaken with the help of an arbitrator appointed by common agreement. He will be entrusted with the task of seeing that the agreements reached conform with the principles laid down, and, in the event of a deadlock, he will decide what solution is to be adopted.

The common High Authority entrusted with the management of the scheme will be composed of independent persons appointed by the governments, giving equal representation. A chairman will be chosen by common agreement between the governments. The Authority's decisions will be enforceable in France, Germany and other member countries. Appropriate measures will be provided for means of appeal against the decisions of the Authority.
A representative of the United Nations will be accredited to the Authority, and will be instructed to make a public report to the United Nations twice yearly, giving an account of the working of the new organization, particularly as concerns the safeguarding of its objectives.

The institution of the High Authority will in no way prejudge the methods of ownership of enterprises. In the exercise of its functions, the common High Authority will take into account the powers conferred upon the International Ruhr Authority and the obligations of all kinds imposed upon Germany, so long as these remain in force.

Subject Guide

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Kamil Yeşiltaş
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Subjects:Law