abstract is a short summary of your completed research. The abstract presents
only the essential information about your project. In 250 words or less, it
describes the objective (thesis statement), methods, and conclusions of your
paper. The wording is direct, with no information repeated. It does not include
background information, descriptions of methods, literature reviews, or
references to other works.
it's important to note that the weight accorded to the different components can
vary by discipline. For models, try to find abstracts of research that is
similar to your research.
Write the abstract only when
the document is finished. Abstracts written before then are just previews.
If you are forced to write an
abstract before the document is completed, think about its purpose and
write a topic sentence. Keep in mind that you'll need to rewrite the
abstract when the document is finished because it will no longer
accurately reflect the contents of the document.
Before starting the abstract,
list your thoughts on the document. Group related items together.
Prioritize the list and put the most important group first. The first few
groups form the core of the topic sentence. The rest lead to supporting
If you can't create a topic
sentence, write the supporting sentences first. The topic sentence may
then become obvious.
Write for an audience not
necessarily up to speed in your subject area. This is important because
you never know who will read your abstract.
Choose acronyms, abbreviations,
and technical terms carefully as they may confuse many readers.
Define the scope of the project
in the abstract.
Reread your abstract after
several days have passed.
Remove all superfluous
Don’ts of Abstract Writing
Don't cite the sections of the paper.
Don’t include references to the literature and
to figures and tables.